The EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement concluded between the EU and the UK sets out preferential arrangements in areas such as trade in goods and in services, digital trade, intellectual property, public procurement, aviation and road transport, energy, fisheries, social security coordination, law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, thematic cooperation and participation in Union programmes. It is underpinned by provisions ensuring a level playing field and respect for fundamental rights.
While it will by no means match the level of economic integration that existed while the UK was an EU Member State, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement goes beyond traditional free trade agreements and provides a solid basis for preserving our longstanding friendship and cooperation.
The Trade and Cooperation Agreement was signed on 30 December 2020, was applied provisionally as of 1 January 2021 and entered into force on 1 May 2021.
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The EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement consists of
- a Free Trade Agreement, with ambitious cooperation on economic, social, environmental and fisheries issues,
- a close partnership on citizens’ security,
- an overarching governance framework.
Foreign policy, external security and defence cooperation is not covered by the Agreement as the UK did not want to negotiate this matter. Since January 2021, there is therefore no framework in place between the UK and the EU to develop and coordinate joint responses to foreign policy challenges, for instance the imposition of sanctions on third country nationals or economies.
In addition, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement does not cover any decisions relating to equivalences for financial services, the adequacy of the UK data protection regime, or the assessment of the UK’s sanitary and phytosanitary regime for the purpose of listing it as a third country allowed to export food products to the EU. Indeed, these are unilateral decisions of the EU and are not subject to negotiation.
Free Trade Agreement
A new economic and social partnership with the United Kingdom
The agreement covers not just trade in goods and services, but also a broad range of other areas in the EU's interest, such as investment, competition, State aid, tax transparency, air and road transport, energy and sustainability, fisheries, data protection, and social security coordination.
- It provides for zero tariffs and zero quotas on all goods that comply with the appropriate rules of origin.
- Both parties have committed to ensuring a robust level playing field by maintaining high levels of protection in areas such as environmental protection, the fight against climate change and carbon pricing, social and labour rights, tax transparency and State aid, with effective, domestic enforcement, a binding dispute settlement mechanism and the possibility for both parties to take remedial measures.
- The EU and the UK agreed on a new framework for the joint management of fish stocks in EU and UK waters. The UK will be able to further develop British fishing activities, while the activities and livelihoods of European fishing communities will be safeguarded, and natural resources preserved.
- On transport, the agreement provides for continued and sustainable air, road, rail and maritime connectivity, though market access falls below what the Single Market offers. It includes provisions to ensure that competition between EU and UK operators takes place on a level playing field, so that passenger rights, workers' rights and transport safety are not undermined.
- On energy, the agreement provides a new model for trading and interconnectivity, with guarantees for open and fair competition, including on safety standards for offshore, and production of renewable energy.
- On social security coordination, the agreement aims at ensuring a number of rights of EU citizens and UK nationals. This concerns EU citizens working in, travelling or moving to the UK and to UK nationals working in, travelling or moving to the EU after 1st January 2021.
- Finally, the agreement enables the UK's continued participation in a number of flagship EU programmes for the period 2021-2027 (subject to a financial contribution by the UK to the EU budget), such as Horizon Europe.
- DG Trade: Exporting from the EU, importing into the EU - all you need to know, product-by-product, on tariffs & taxes, customs procedures, rules of origin, trade barriers, product requirements, and statistics for all EU countries and for more than 120 export markets around the world
DG TAXUD: Taxation and Customs: Questions and Answers on the impact of the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, its Single Market and Customs Union
- DG TAXUD: Taxation and Customs: Guidance on the TCA rules of origin and preferential treatment
- DG TAXUD: Taxation and Customs: Information relating to the UK no longer being covered by EU preferential trade arrangements with third countries
New partnership for our citizens’ security
The Trade and Cooperation Agreement establishes a new framework for law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal and civil law matters. It recognises the need for strong cooperation between national police and judicial authorities, in particular for fighting and prosecuting cross-border crime and terrorism.
It builds new operational capabilities, taking account of the fact that the UK, as a non-EU member outside of the Schengen area, will not have the same facilities as before. The security cooperation can be suspended in case of violations by the UK of its commitment for continued adherence to the European Convention of Human Rights and its domestic enforcement.
Horizontal agreement on Governance
A framework that stands the test of time
To give maximum legal certainty to businesses, consumers and citizens, a dedicated chapter on governance provides clarity on how the Trade and Cooperation Agreement will be operated and controlled. It also establishes a Joint Partnership Council, who will make sure the Agreement is properly applied and interpreted, and in which all arising issues will be discussed.
Binding enforcement and dispute settlement mechanisms will ensure that rights of businesses, consumers and individuals are respected. This means that businesses in the EU and the UK compete on a level playing field and will avoid either party using its regulatory autonomy to grant unfair subsidies or distort competition. The agreement foresees the possibility of adopting rebalancing, remedial, compensatory and safeguard measures.
Both parties can engage in cross-sector retaliation in case of violations of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. This cross-sector retaliation applies to all areas of the economic partnership. Specific suspension clauses apply to the cooperation on law enforcement and judicial cooperation in case a Party breaches its obligations.
Call for application: dispute settlement activities under the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement
Monitoring the application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement with the United Kingdom is central in ensuring that European Union citizens and businesses can fully benefit from it. Do you have a complaint about the way in which the United Kingdom is implementing the Agreement? Please answer a few simple questions and we will direct your complaint to the appropriate Commission service.
If you have a complaint about the way in which a Member State of the European Union is implementing the Agreement, please use the complaint form for breach of Union law.
Press release: EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement: protecting European interests, ensuring fair competition, and continued cooperation in areas of mutual interest
Remarks by Chief Negotiator Michel Barnier at the press conference on the outcome of the EU-UK negotiations - 24 December 2020
Press conference by European Commission President Ursula von der LEYEN and Chief Negotiator Michel BARNIER, on the outcome of the EU-UK negotiations - 24 December 2020
- EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement: A new relationship, with big changes - Overview of consequences and benefits
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