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Statistics on migration to Europe

Overall figures of immigrants in European society

On 1 January 2021, there were

447.2 million inhabitants living in the EU

23.7 million were non-EU citizens

(5.3% of EU's total population)

37.5 million people were born outside the EU*

(8.4% of all EU inhabitants)

*This does not include those born in another Member State

The share of foreign-born population in the EU is lower than in most high-income countries.

Foreign-born residents per country

Source: Eurostat, UNDESA, data from 2020
Note: non-EU born in case of the EU (i.e. those born in another Member State are not included); if intra-EU mobile persons were included, the share would be 12.4%

Reasons to stay in Europe

All valid residence permits at the end of 2021 by reason

Source: Eurostat; without Denmark; end of 2020 data in case of Croatia, Finland, Hungary and Ireland; “other” includes permits issued for the reason of residence only, permits issued to victims of trafficking of human beings and unaccompanied minors, as well as permits issued for all other reasons for which residence permits may be issued and which are not covered by the other categories

Among the non-EU citizens residing in the EU with a valid residence permit at the end of 2021, most were holding permits issued for family or work reasons.

Employment of immigrants

In 2021, 8.84 million non-EU citizens were employed in the EU labour market, out of 189.7 million persons aged from 20 to 64, corresponding to 4.7% of the total.

The employment rate in the EU in the working-age population is higher for EU citizens (74%), than for non-EU citizens (59.1%) in 2021.

Fact to consider: Many non-EU citizens are "essential workers".

Over-represented sectors

In 2021, non-EU citizens were over-represented in some specific economic sectors such as:

SectorOverall employment of non-EU citizensOverall employment of EU citizens
Accommodation and food service activities10.2%3.7%  
Administrative and support service activities7.7%3.8%
Domestic work6.7%0.7%

Over-representation by occupation

In terms of occupations, non-EU citizens were over-represented among:

Occupational groupOverall employment of non-EU citizensOverall employment of EU citizens
Cleaners and helpers11.8%


Personal services workers6.3%3.7%
Personal care workers5.7%3.0%
Building and related trades workers, excluding electricians6.5%3.7%
Labourers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport6.0%2.5%
Food preparation assistants2.3%0.6%
Agricultural, forestry and fishery labourers2.8%0.7%

Under-represented sectors

Non-EU citizens were under-represented in other economic sectors, including:

SectorOverall employment of non-EU citizensOverall employment of EU citizens
Public administration and defence, compulsory social security1.3%7.5%
Human health and social work activities8.3%11.3%
Professional, scientific and technical activities3.5%5.9%

Under-representation by occupation

On the other hand, non-EU citizens were under-represented among:

Occupational groupOverall employment of non-EU citizensOverall employment of EU citizens
Teaching professionals2.4%5.6%
Business and administration associate professionals2.7%6.9%
General and keyboard clerks1.6%4.4%
Science and engineering associate professionals1.7%3.6%
Business and administration professionals2.2%4.4%
Health professionals1.4%3.1%

Source: Eurostat

Refugees in Europe

Refugees from Ukraine

Since Russia’s military aggression in Ukraine in February 2022, Europe has received the largest number of people fleeing war since World War II. For up-to-date details of the efforts to welcome people fleeing the war in Ukraine and to provide temporary protection, see the dedicated page Migration management: Welcoming refugees from Ukraine.

Overall situation at end of 2021

Based on data from UNHCR, at the end of 2021, all around the world there were:

  • 27.1 million refugees and
  • 53.2 million internally displaced persons (due to conflict and violence).

 Fact to consider: at the end of 2021, less than 10% of all the world’s refugees and only a fraction of internally displaced persons were living in the EU.

 The share of refugees in the EU was 0.6% compared to its total population.

Number of refugees compared to total population

Several countries around the world host a large refugee population:


Source: UNHCR
Note: The graph shows the ten countries hosting the most refugees and the EU

Fact to consider: The majority of refugees from Africa and Asia do not come to Europe, but rather move to neighbouring countries.

Migration to and from the EU

Migration numbers in 2022

1.92 million persons
immigrated to the EU
0.96 million persons
emigrated from the EU
0.96 million persons
total net immigration to the EU

Fact to consider: Without migration, the European population would have shrunk by half a million in 2019, given that 4.2 million children were born and 4.7 million people died in the EU. In 2020, EU population shrunk by about 100 thousand people (from 447.3 million on 1 January 2020 to 447.2 million on 1 January 2021), due to a combination of less births, more deaths and less net migration.

In 2021, 2.95 million first residence permits were issued in the EU, compared to 2.3 million in 2020, reaching almost similar numbers as before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (3.0 million in 2019). The decrease was driven by the travel restrictions introduced to curb the spread of the COVID-19 virus. The pandemic had a particularly strong negative impact on education-related permits and, as a result, their share decreased from 13% in 2019 to 11% in 2020. In 2021, there was a particularly large increase in case of work-related permits, the share of which grew from 39% in 2020 to 45% in 2021. In 2021, first permits were issued for the following reasons:

Source: Eurostat; “other” includes permits issued for the reason of residence only, permits issued to victims of trafficking of human beings and unaccompanied minors, as well as permits issued for all other reasons for which residence permits may be issued and which are not covered by the other categories

Top 10 nationalities of first residence permits issued in EU Member States in 2021

Seeking asylum in Europe

First time asylum applicants by continent of origin (2021)

Source: Eurostat

Top 15 nationalities of first time asylum applicants (2021)

Source: Eurostat

In 2021, asylum seekers came from around 140 countries.

632,300 applications, including 537,300 first time applications, were lodged in the EU in 2021, an increase of 34% in comparison to 2020, but 10% less than in 2019, before COVID.

A significant share of applicants come from visa-free countries (15% of first time applicants in 2021, down from 25% in 2020 because of less applicants from Latin America) who enter the EU legally, mostly from:

  • Venezuela (2.8% of all first time applications)
  • Georgia (2.3%)
  • Colombia (2.2%)
  • Albania (1.8%)
  • Moldova (1.2%)
Most first time applications were lodged in:
  • Germany (148,200)
  • France (103,800)
  • Spain (62,100)
  • Italy (45,200)
  • Austria (37,800)
Relative to the population, in 2021, the highest number of first time asylum applications was lodged in:
  • Cyprus (1 480 per 100,000 inhabitants)
  • Austria (423)
  • Slovenia (247)

First time asylum applications per 100,000 inhabitants in 2021:

Source: Eurostat

In 2021, 183,600 people seeking asylum were under 18 years old – nearly 13% of them (23,300) were unaccompanied children. Most of unaccompanied children came from Afghanistan, Syria and Bangladesh.

In the first half of 2022, 405,500 asylum applications (from which 365,400 first time applications) were lodged in the EU. This is 63% more than in the same period of 2021, and also 21% higher compared to pre-COVID times (same period of 2019). In March 2022, the number of applications exceeded 80,000, the highest monthly level since 2016.

Recognition of refugees

In 2021, EU countries took 524,400 first instance asylum decisions. 39% of these decisions were positive:

  • 112,700 persons received refugee status,
  • 61,400 were granted subsidiary protection status and
  • 28,000 received humanitarian status.

A further 207,900 final decisions were made following an appeal, including:

  • 26,600 decisions granting refugee status,
  • 19,300 granting subsidiary protection status and
  • 26,500 granting humanitarian status.

Overall, EU countries granted protection to around 275,000 people in 2021.

In the first half of 2022, the recognition rate increased: out of 303,400 first instance asylum decisions, 48% were positive, including:

  • 72,800 decisions granting refugee status,
  • 47,200 granting subsidiary protection status and
  • 26,800 granting humanitarian status.

Effectiveness of the asylum system

  • Fluctuating backlog
    At the end of May 2022, 774,100 asylum applications were pending - 15% more than one year earlier (675,200). The backlog continuously increased between May 2021 and April 2022. 
  • Varying processing times across Member States
    The ratio of pending cases and applications varies widely across Member States, reflecting the differences in processing time. According to EUAA data, at the end of June 2022, half of the cases pending at first instance had been pending for less than six months.

Number of pending applications compared to total number of applications in a given month

Source: Eurostat

  • Varying recognition rates across EU countries
    The EU’s asylum system remains undermined due to significant differences in recognition rates across EU countries. For example, in 2021 the recognition rate of Afghan citizens at first instance ranged from 9% in Bulgaria to 100% in Spain and Portugal (from those Member States that issued at least 100 first instance decisions to Afghan citizens).
  • Dublin rules in practice

    In 2020, Member States reported 94,600 outgoing requests under the Dublin rules sent to other Member States and other countries participating in the Dublin system to take responsibility for examining an application for international protection. Out of 86,000 decisions on such requests, 50,600 (59%) were accepted and 12,500 outgoing transfers were executed, corresponding to 25% of accepted requests.


In 2021, around 22,500 people in need of international protection were resettled from non-EU countries to EU Member States, 156% more than in 2020 and 2% more than in 2019.

Syrian and Afghan were by far the main nationalities, accounting for 43% and 29% of people resettled, respectively.

Under joint EU resettlement schemes, more than 100,000 persons found protection in the EU since 2015. Member States receive support from the EU budget for these resettlements.

Irregular border crossings

Overall figures

Irregular EU border crossings by nationality in 2021


Source: Frontex

199,900 irregular border crossings

Increased by 58% compared to 2020

This includes:

112,600 sea crossings in 2021

Increase of 29% compared to 2020

87,300 land border crossings in 2021

Increase of 124% compared to 2020

153,900 illegal border crossings (January - July 2022)

85% more than in the same period of 2021

Geographical distribution

  • Increase in crossings on the Central Mediterranean (+90%, 67,700), the Eastern Mediterranean (+1%, 20,600) and the Eastern borders (+1213%, 8,100) routes
  • Decrease in crossings on the Western Mediterranean (including the Atlantic route from Western Africa to the Canary islands) (-2%, 40,800)
  • 36% increase of deaths at sea: 3,171 persons were reported dead or missing in 2021 on the three main routes, compared to 2,327 in 2020
  • Looking at the period between January and July, in 2022 there was an increase in crossings on the Central Mediterranean (+42%, 41,500),  the Eastern Mediterranean (+122%, 21,500) and the Western Mediterranean routes (+1%, 16,400) compared to the same period in 2021
  • Between January and July 2022, there was a decrease in crossings on the Eastern borders route (-21%, 3,300) compared to the same period in 2021
  • 33% decrease of deaths at sea: 1,533 persons were reported dead or missing in January-August 2022 on the three main routes, compared to 2,278 in the same period of 2021


Overall figures

340,500 non-EU citizens ordered to leave the EU
A 14% decrease compared to 2020
396,400 non-EU citizens ordered to leave the EU

Among the main countries of nationality of those ordered to leave the EU were:

  • Algeria (7.7%)
  • Albania (6.5%)
  • Morocco (6.2%)
  • Pakistan (5.4%)
  • Ukraine (5.2%)

Effectiveness of the return system

In 2021, 70,500 non-EU citizens were returned to a non-EU country. This corresponds to 21% of all return decisions issued during the year, increasing from 18% in 2020. The travel restriction introduced in the wake of the pandemic and the limited availability of flights made it difficult to carry out returns in 2020.

Among the main countries of origin of those returned outside of the EU in 2021 were:

  • Ukraine (12.8%)
  • Albania (12.7%)
  • Georgia (7.4%)

Among the nationalities with at least 5,000 return orders, the return rate was particularly low for those coming from

  • Eritrea (2.0%)
  • Libya (2.9%)
  • Côte d'Ivoire (3.2%)
  • Syria (3.5%)
  • Guinea (4.3%)

In 2021, the share of voluntary and forced returns was 50-50%. 77% of the returns were assisted returns - persons returned received logistical, financial and/ or other material assistance.

In the first half of 2022, 179 600 non-EU citizens were ordered to leave an EU Member State, and a total of 33 600 were returned to a non-EU country following an order to leave. Compared to the same period of 2021, the number of return orders and returns increased by 7% and 20%, respectively.

Short stay visas

In 2021, nearly 1,700 Member States' consulates received 2.9 million short stay visa applications lodged by non-EU citizens, unchanged from 2020 but 83% less than in 2019.

In total, 2.4 million short stay visas were issued and 0.38 million were refused, amounting to an EU-wide refusal rate of 13.4% (down from 13.6% in 2020 but up from 9.9% in 2019).

Most applications were lodged in:

  • Russia (536,000) 
  • Türkiye (272,000)
  • Ukraine (194,000)
  • Saudi Arabia (173,000)
  • Morocco (157,000)

Most visa applications were processed by

  • France (652,000)
  • Spain (483,000)
  • Germany (346,000)
  • Greece (296,000)
  • Italy (213,000)

72% of all visas were issued for multiple entries. Short stay visas cover travel throughout the 26 Schengen countries for up to 90 days in any 180-day period.

The Atlas on Migration

The Atlas on Migration of the European Commission’s Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography is an interactive resource of harmonised, up-to-date and validated data on the status of migration and demography in 27 EU Member States and 171 non-EU countries and territories.

European statistics on migration and asylum

Up-to-date European statistics on

and related information is available on Eurostat's website.

Eurostat collects data from the National Statistics Authorities of the EU Member States and EFTA countries based on statistical regulations adopted by the European Parliament and the Council. Data and related metadata are quality assured in line with the European Statistics Code of Practice, and updated at regular intervals depending on the data collection. Statistical findings are published in Statistics Explained articles and other publications.    

Disclaimer: The above data is based on latest available information, updated on a quarterly basis, last update: 27 October 2022