Following the unprecedented crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, Romania’s recovery and resilience plan has responded to the urgent need to foster a strong recovery, while making Romania’s economy and society more resilient and future ready. In response to the energy market disruption caused by Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the Commission launched the REPowerEU Plan. The Recovery and Resilience Facility is at the heart of its implementation and its funding. Under REPowerEU, EU countries are updating their recovery and resilience plans with new measures to save energy and diversify the EU’s energy supplies.
Focusing on green technologies and capacities - sustainable mobility, energy efficiency and renewables, climate change adaptation; circular economy; and biodiversity.
Policies for the next generation
Improving access to and the quality of general, vocational, and higher education; focusing on digital education, early childhood education and care; supporting youth employment.
Smart, sustainable, inclusive growth
promoting entrepreneurship, competitiveness, industrialisation; improving the business environment; fostering research, development and innovation, supporting small- and medium-sized businesses.
Promoting the roll-out of very high-capacity networks, the digitalisation of public services, government processes, and businesses, in particular SMEs; developing basic and advanced digital skills; supporting digital-related R&D and the deployment of advanced technologies.
Social and territorial cohesion
Improving social and territorial infrastructure and services, including social protection and welfare systems, the inclusion of disadvantaged groups; supporting employment and skills development; creating high-quality, stable jobs.
Health and economic, social and institutional resilience
Improving the resilience, accessibility and quality of health and long-term care, including measures to advance their digitalisation; increasing the effectiveness of public administration systems.
The map exclusively serves information purposes and is not an exhaustive database of projects supported by the Recovery and Resilience Facility. It does not reflect the distribution of the projects funded by the Recovery and Resilience Facility across the European Union, nor across different geographical areas or sectors within EU Member States. The RRF funding amounts shown for measures are based on the initial cost estimates included in the recovery and resilience plans.
Furthermore, the projects showcased are without prejudice to any future assessment by the Commission in the context of verifying the satisfactory fulfilment of milestones and targets under Regulation (EU) 2021/241 establishing the Recovery and Resilience Facility.
*The plan is entirely financed by RRF grants and loans
- 107 investment streams and 64 reforms
- 41% of the plan will support climate objectives
- 20.5% of the plan will foster the digital transition
The transformative impact of Romania’s plan is the result of a strong combination of reforms and investments which address the country’s specific challenges. The reforms address bottlenecks to lasting and sustainable growth, while numerous investments are targeted towards the green transition, notably through sustainable transport, building renovation, biodiversity protection, industry decarbonisation and deployment of renewables. Romania’s plan also includes measures on digitalization of public administration and public services and improvement of healthcare and education sectors, in an approach that takes into account regional disparities. Important reforms and investments aim at improving the quality and sustainability of public finances and the pension system, the effectiveness of public administration, including state owned enterprises, public procurement, the judiciary and the fight against corruption, as well as support for the business environment and research & innovation.
All measures have to be implemented within a tight time frame, as the Regulation establishing the Recovery and Resilience Facility requires all milestones and targets within the national plans to be completed by August 2026.
In the area of climate and environmental policies, Romania’s challenges include the greenhouse-gas emissions that are set to increase and could jeopardise the achievement of 2030 and 2050 energy and climate targets. In addition, while Romania’s circular economy has potential, there is a particular need to improve infrastructure and increase investments in water, waste, wastewater and air pollution infrastructure.
Key measures for the green transition
- The plan supports the green transition through investments in modernising railwayinfrastructure, including electrified or zero-emission railways and rolling stock (€3.9 billion).
- An investment of €1.8 billion will support urban mobility through infrastructure for a green and safer urban transport.
- Reforms and investments amounting to €855 million will support clean energy production by phasing-out of coal and lignite power production, deployment of renewables, and hydrogen.
- The plan includes an investment of €2.7 billion for energy-efficient renovation and seismic renovation of buildings.
- Biodiversity and environmental protection measures include afforestation and reforestation and forest nurseries, as well as other biodiversity measures for ecological reconstruction and species protection, with investments amounting to €1.1 billion.
The investment aims to increase the energy renovation rate of multi-family buildings and public buildings in Romania, one of the EU countries most exposed to seismic risk and therefore in need of energy renovation and seismic renovation.
- Project locations
Digital challenges for Romania include connectivity especially in rural areas, lack of digital skills, below EU average digitalisation of schools, households, companies and public services. Existing capacities are not sufficient to ensure a high level of network security and adequate cyber risk management.
Key measures for the digital transition
Romania’s recovery and resilience plan supports the digital transition with investments and reforms for the digitalisation of public administration in key areas such as justice, employment and social protection, environment, civil service management and skills development, public procurement, cybersecurity, tax and customs, while building a secure government cloud infrastructure and supporting eID deployment.
- Public administration digitalization investments amount to €1.5 billion.
- Investments for digitalisation of health (€470 million) support the development of an integrated e-Health system, connecting over 25,000 healthcare providers and developing telemedicine systems.
- Investments for digitalisation of education (€881 million) aim at improving digital pedagogical skills, educational content and equipment and resources, including in universities.
The project aims to support the transition and adoption of the electronic identity card (e-ID card) for Romanian citizens.
- Project locations
Economic and social resilience
Key challenges with an impact on Romania’s medium-term economic performance include growing fiscal and current account deficits stemming from a consumption-led growth model based on strong domestic demand, which was stimulated in recent years by expansionary fiscal policy. In addition, adverse demographic developments and shortages in the education system have led to labour and skill shortages and inequalities and regional disparities have been further accentuated by Covid-19 crisis. An unpredictable business environment is also a challenge of the Romanian economy.
Key measures in reinforcing economic and social resilience
The plan reinforces economic and social resilience by supporting the public administration with a large array of measures including improving the effectiveness of the judicial system, strengthening policy coordination and planning capacity of the governmentand improving human resources management in the civil service.
- Territorial and social cohesion will be fostered by development of road infrastructure and modernisation of railways, as well as by reforming the Romanian social benefits system through the implementation of the minimum inclusion income reform and measures to improve the employment and social protection digital systems.
- Fiscal sustainability will be supported by reinforced budgetary framework, better expenditure control and review of taxation, and pension system reform.
- Investments of €2 billion in modern hospital infrastructure will strengthen the resilience of the health system.
- The 2022 Annual Event on Romania’s recovery and resilience plan took place on 8 November 2022.
- Participants included the European Commission, Government of Romania, and a broad range of stakeholders, including social partners, NGOs, and academics.
- The discussions focussed on the implementation of Romania’s recovery and resilience plan in the areas of the green transition and fiscal reforms.
More information on the event can be found here.
Romania’s plan is consistent with the challenges and priorities identified in the European Semester, the annual cycle of coordination and monitoring of each EU country’s economic policies. For a detailed explanation of the European Semester see the following link: The European Semester explained | European Commission (europa.eu)
Original Recovery and Resilience Plan (October 2021)
Updated Recovery and Resilience Plan (2023)
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