(*) Key achievements in the table state which period they relate to. Many come from the implementation of the predecessor programmes under the 2014-2020 multiannual financial framework. This is expected and is due to the multiannual life cycle of EU programmes and the projects they finance, where results often follow only after completion of the programmes.
Budget for 2021-2027
Rationale and design of the programme
The Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) promotes the efficient management of migration flows and the implementation, strengthening and development of a common approach to asylum and immigration in the EU.
The EU has faced a very large, and growing, number of asylum seekers and migrants in recent years. Attempts by migrants to reach European shores using makeshift means have all too often resulted in tragedy. The EU budget has supported efforts to manage these inflows and effective returns. Nevertheless, as confirmed by regular reports on the delivery of EU migration policy, there is still much to be done to reduce the incentives for irregular migration.
The challenges in the areas of asylum and migration are by their nature interlinked, transnational phenomena, and cannot be adequately addressed by Member States acting alone. Together with the integrated management of the EU's external borders, the completion of a Common European Asylum System is the most effective way to share these responsibilities and their financial implications between Member States fairly. EU funding in the area of integration of non-EU nationals is indispensable to increase the quality of support for newcomers in the early stages after their arrival. This is crucial in order to ensure their full inclusion in EU society in the long run, if they receive permanent protection.
The AMIF aims to further boost national capacities and improve procedures for migration management, and to enhance solidarity and responsibility sharing between Member States, in particular through emergency assistance and the relocation mechanism.
The AMIF pursues the following specific objectives.
- To strengthen and develop all aspects of the Common European Asylum System, including its external dimension.
- To support legal migration to the Member States, including by contributing to the integration of non-EU nationals.
- To contribute to countering irregular migration and ensuring the effectiveness of return and readmission in non-EU countries.
- To enhance solidarity and the sharing of responsibility between the Member States, in particular towards those most affected by migration and asylum challenges, including through practical cooperation.
The AMIF supports a broad range of actions in line with EU migration policy. This includes, in particular:
- ensuring the uniform application of the EU acquis and of the priorities related to the Common European Asylum System, legal migration and return;
- providing support and services consistent with the status and the needs of the people concerned, in particular vulnerable groups;
- supporting resettlement, humanitarian admission and transfers of applicants for and beneficiaries of international protection;
- supporting the development and implementation of policies promoting legal migration, such as the development of mobility schemes to the EU and raising awareness of the appropriate legal channels for immigration;
- supporting integration measures tailored to the needs of non-EU nationals and early integration programmes focusing on education, language and other training (such as civic orientation courses and professional guidance) to prepare their active participation in and their acceptance by the receiving society;
- supporting infrastructure for the reception of non-EU nationals, including the possible joint use of such facilities by more than one Member State;
- supporting an integrated and coordinated approach to return management at the EU and Member State levels, developing capacities for effective and sustainable return and reducing incentives for irregular migration;
- supporting assisted voluntary return and reintegration;
- cooperating with non-EU countries on asylum, legal migration and countering irregular migration, and on effective return and readmission for the purpose of managing migration.
The AMIF will be implemented under shared, direct or indirect management. The largest share (63.5%) will be allocated to national programmes under shared management. The Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs is the lead DG for the Commission, in close coordination with DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, DG Agriculture and Rural Development, DG Regional and Urban Policy, DG Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations, DG International Partnerships and the Service for Foreign Policy Instruments.
The impact assessment of the AMIF was carried out in 2018. For further information please consult: https://europa.eu/!xU94BD
The AMIF builds on the successful implementation of and lessons learnt from the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund under the 2014-2020 multiannual financial framework. It maintains its external dimension while ensuring more safeguards. It also introduces more flexibility through the new Thematic Facility, which enables funding to be allocated to emerging or unforeseen needs (via a mix of shared, direct and indirect management), to steer the funds towards changing EU priorities and pressing challenges.
Regulation (EU) 2021/1147 of the European Parliament and of the Council
Asylum, Migration and Integration Funds
Implementation and performance
Budget programming (million EUR):
|Financial programming||497.6||1 370.6||1 417.8||1 500.4||1 782.4||1 702.5||1 797.2||10 068.7|
|Decommitments made available again (*)||N/A||N/A|
|Contributions from other countries and entities||0.0||p.m.||p.m.||p.m.||p.m.||p.m.||p.m.||0.0|
(*) Only Article 15(3) of the financial regulation.
+ EUR 191.8 million (+ 2%)
compared to the legal basis
Cumulative implementation rate at the end of 2021 (million EUR):
Voted budget implementation in 2021 (million EUR):
|Voted budget implementation||Initial voted budget|
- For the Member States' programmes, due to the delays in the adoption of the legal basis for 2021-2027 and the time needed for the programming procedure, shared management programmes may only be formally approved starting from the second quarter in 2022. The EU actions have also become a part of the Thematic Facility covered by the multiannual work programme for 2021-2022. Most of the actions have been pencilled in for 2022, with their implementation commencing in early 2022 and continuing in 2023.
- The emergency assistance instrument provides financial assistance to Member States, international organisations and (exceptionally) EU agencies to address urgent and specific needs in the event of duly justified emergency situation, as defined in the fund-specific regulation, in particular in the areas of migration, border management and security. For instance, in August 2021 the Commission allocated an emergency assistance grant of EUR 14 million to Spain to cover the provision of humanitarian assistance to the migrant population reaching the autonomous city of Ceuta.
- The invasion of Ukraine by Russia on 24 February 2022 led to a large influx into several EU Member States of displaced people from Ukraine. This has placed renewed pressure on the financial resources of Member States to deal with urgent migration management needs. While the increased migratory pressure is already being felt acutely in the Member States that share a land border with Ukraine, the needs are spreading further afield throughout the whole territory of the EU, and will persist beyond 2022 into 2023. The Commission's proposal to increase flexibilities in the use of 2014-2020 funds and examined available amounts in the Emergency Assistance and Thematic Facility was adopted in April 2022. The proposal also extended the implementation period by 1 year, i.e. up to 2023.
Contribution to horizontal priorities
EU budget contribution in 2021 (million EUR):
|Climate||Biodiversity||Gender equality (*)|
|0||0||Score 0*: 496.8|
(*) Based on the applied gender contribution methodology, the following scores are attributed at the most granular level of intervention possible:
- 2: interventions the principal objective of which is to improve gender equality;
- 1: interventions that have gender equality as an important and deliberate objective but not as the main reason for the intervention;
- 0: non-targeted interventions;
- 0*: score to be assigned to interventions with a likely but not yet clear positive impact on gender equality.
|Number of people placed in alternatives to detention||0||No results||No data|
|Number of participants in language courses who have improved their proficiency level in the host-country language upon leaving the language course by at least one level in the Common European Framework of the Reference for Languages or the national equivalent||0||No results||No data|
|Number of participants who applied for long-term status||0||No results||No data|
|Number of returnees voluntarily returned||0||No results||No data|
|Number of returnees who were removed||0||No results||No data|
|Number of applicants for and beneficiaries of international protection transferred from one Member State to another||0||No results||No data|
|Number of people resettled||0||No results||No data|
|Number of people admitted through humanitarian admission||0||No results||No data|
(*) % of target achieved by the end of 2021.
Performance assessment will be provided once the implementation of the 2021-2027 programme has started in earnest and the first performance reports have been received.
MFF 2014-2020 – Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund
The AMIF is achieving its objectives, especially considering the volatile and challenging migration situation throughout the 2014-2020 period. The AMIF provides the financial means to push forward the EU's agenda on migration. The Commission is working to establish a comprehensive approach on this agenda, developing legislative proposals to establish and improve common EU action, and monitoring and enforcing the correct implementation of applicable rules by the Member States.
Cumulative implementation rate at the end of 2021 (million EUR):
|Commitments||7 585.4||7 595.0||100%|
- Given the acute migration and border management needs arising from the invasion of Ukraine, the Commission proposed an initiative, which was adopted in April 2022, to facilitate access to unspent funding under the home affairs funds for the 2014-2020 programmes (including the AMIF).
- Indeed, at the end of 2021, for the national programmes only, 75.18% of the total envelope of the fund had been paid, meaning that the Member States actually spent and used EUR 3.44 billion of the EUR 4.58 billion allocated under the national programmes over the 2014-2020 period. By February 2022, Member States had requested a total amount of EUR 556 million. The implementation of the AMIF will run until the end of 2023. Therefore, nearly 2 years of implementation remain.
- Over the last few years, the national programmes have been revised several times. In 2017, they were modified to include funding linked to the resettlement, return and measures implementing the EU action plan on the integration of non-EU nationals. In 2018, they were revised to include an envelope of EUR 30 million and EUR 20 million to support the integration of non-EU nationals and the return of migrants, and to reflect the outcome of the midterm review exercise. In 2019, they were modified to include additional resources of EUR 97.6 million for resettlements to be carried out by the Member States in 2020 and 2021. In 2021, funding was increased again, by EUR 77.9 million.
- Implementation in 2020 and 2021 was marked by the effort to address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to some delays in project implementation and procurement processes, especially in projects where the final beneficiary needs face-to-face interaction with the target audience (asylum, integration, return, relocation and resettlement) and in connection with travel restrictions. Also, there was an increase in mitigating measures in the co-financing rates, due to the extension of the duration of projects, with content adaptations or modifications.
- The AMIF has contributed to the EU Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing the root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa (EUR 135 million between 2017 and 2020).
- By the end of 2021, AMIF emergency assistance allocated to Member States since 2015 had reached EUR 2.4 billion. In 2021, 21 commitments were signed in relation to emergency assistance, notably in relation to Greece, Spain, Cyprus and Malta.
|Asylum – people provided with assistance||0||> 100%||1.3 million in 2022||2.7 million compared to a target of 1.3 million||Achieved|
|New/improved reception accommodation infrastructures||0||81%||51 028 in 2022||41 266 compared to a target of 51 028||On track|
|Number of people resettled||0||79%||108 860 in 2022||86 243 compared to a target of 108 860||On track|
|Integration of non-EU nationals – number of beneficiaries||0||> 100%||2.6 million in 2022||7.8 million compared to target of 2.6 million||Achieved|
|Integration of non-EU nationals – local, regional and national actions||0||> 100%||7 443 in 2022||12 786 compared to target of 7 443||Achieved|
|Co-financed returns – total (number of people)||0||57%||612 400 in 2022||347 387 compared to a target of 612 400||Deserves attention|
|Co-financed returns – voluntary (number of people)||0||63%||297 930 in 2022||187 983 compared to a target of 297 930||Deserves attention|
|Asylum seekers and beneficiaries transferred from one Member State to another||0||92%||38 703 in 2022||35 451 compared to a target of 38 703||On track|
(*) % of target achieved by the end of 2021.
- The AMIF focused on the three areas identified in its acronym: asylum schemes, migration and integration. Whereas in the first year a stronger focus was placed on asylum schemes, for example via resettlement and relation, the latter years have focused increasingly on legal migration and integration.
- Overall, most of the innovative measures (simplified cost options, multiannual programming) are considered beneficial and appear to have achieved simplification. Room for improvement still exists, however, especially in relation to the internal coherence of the fund and the administrative part (control measures) that affects efficiency, or in relation to the monitoring and evaluation system under the AMIF, including in terms of definitions of its indicators and the collection of data. These are key aspects currently being tackled while the new 2021-2027 programmes and related monitoring systems are being set up together with the fund's managing authorities.
- In terms of performance, most of the indicators set out for the AMIF have achieved or exceeded their targets, with the exception of the returns area, which was particularly affected in 2020 and 2021 by COVID-19-related travel restrictions.
- On the strengthening of the Common European Asylum System, the number of asylum applications increased by a third compared to 2020, coming back to pre-pandemic levels after a drop that was largely driven by COVID-19 and the related travel restrictions. Emergency assistance is the Commission's main tool for providing strategic operational EU added-value support at short notice in the form of grants and contributions, which was confirmed later on by the interim evaluation of the fund. Since 2015, the total amount of AMIF emergency assistance has reached over EUR 2.4 billion. As regards the AMIF programmes, the fund provided 2.72 million people in target groups with asylum assistance, exceeding its target of 1.26 million, and 71 235 people were trained in asylum-related topics compared to a target of 25 205.
- On effective integration and legal migration, the Commission supports the Member States in integrating non-EU nationals through the use of EU funding, some of which is provided by the AMIF and the rest by the European Structural and Investment Funds. Between 2014 and 2020, EUR 1 022 million was allocated under the AMIF to support measures on integration and legal migration. In 2021, Member States reported expenditure of EUR 147 million. Under the AMIF national programmes, the target of 2.6 million people having participated in integration assistance projects was greatly exceeded.
- However, as regards the number of persons who participated in pre-departure measures, the results fell far below the target set (114 659 people supported versus a target of 240 920). Reaching the targets depends on Member States and their estimates, with some exceeding their targets significantly and others still at a very early stage of fulfilling them. Travel restrictions and delays due to COVID-19 also played a role.
- On effective return policies, with migrants who have no right to stay in the EU needing to be returned, the area needs further improvement and additional efforts, which will depend on better cooperation by non-EU countries and on Member States' effectiveness in implementing returns. In 2020, the rate of effective return of from the EU-27 to non-EU countries dropped to 17.7%, given that return decisions were affected much less than actual return operations by travel restrictions on the grounds of COVID-19. Return-related indicators are also not fully on track to achieve their targets. However, in 2021, the Commission put forward a number of new initiatives to improve on effective return policies, including its first strategy on voluntary returns and reintegration ( ), additional cooperation with key countries of origin and the strengthening of flights coordinated by the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (up by approximately 50%). Furthermore, in March 2022, the Commission also appointed a return coordinator in DG Migration and Home Affairs.
- On strengthening solidarity and sharing responsibilities between Member States, in 2016 the Commission proposed a system with a corrective allocation mechanism, which has not yet been adopted by the European Parliament and the Council. However, there is a need for emergency measures to support Member States facing disproportionate numbers of arrivals. Therefore, in addition to their national allocations, several Member States, notably Greece, Spain and Italy, have benefited from AMIF emergency assistance. For example, EUR 1.897 billion in emergency assistance had been granted to Greece by the end of December 2021.
- The main lessons learnt during the programming period 2014-2020 include the following:
- there has been insufficient cooperation, coordination and strategic steering in the implementation of the AMIF with other EU-level initiatives;
- there is a need for simplification;
- there is insufficient flexibility to respond to changing needs during the programming period;
- there is a need to strengthen the quality of performance monitoring, with more regular and reliable data setting out result indicators.