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EU citizenship

EU citizenship is a unique concept. Find more information here on the rights of EU citizens, and on the Commission’s work on EU citizenship.

The EU Citizenship package

2023 marked the 30th anniversary of EU citizenship. This anniversary was a reminder of the importance of the rights EU citizenship entails. The EU citizenship package intends to further advance EU citizenship rights and make them more tangible for EU citizens. It includes the Citizenship Report 2023, which takes stock of all developments in the area of EU citizenship since 2020. It also includes a proposal to amend the Consular Protection Directive, new guidance on free movement, a guide of good electoral practices addressing the participation of citizens with disabilities in the electoral process, a Compendium of e-voting and other ICT practices, and a Guide to EU citizenship.

Find all documents and the press release on the EU Citizenship package  

Guide to EU citizenship

Being an EU citizen gives you many rights and opportunities. Learn more about your rights and how to make the most of them by reading our Guide to EU citizenship.

The guide will help to familiarise you with the history, values, rights and responsibilities that underpin your status as EU citizen. It illustrates the benefits of EU citizenship and the opportunities it offers for democratic engagement.

Rights of EU citizens

The Treaty on the functioning of the European Union gives EU citizens the right to:

  • non-discrimination on the basis of nationality
  • move and reside freely within the EU
  • vote for and stand as a candidate in European Parliament and municipal elections
  • consular protection (help from the embassy or consulate of any other EU country to EU citizens in distress in a country outside the EU where they have no embassy or consulate of their own country)
  • petition the European Parliament and complain to the European Ombudsman
  • launch or support a European citizens' initiative, asking the European Commission to propose legislation on an issue that matters to them
  • contact and receive a response from any EU institution in one of the EU's official languages

EU citizenship reports

EU citizenship and the rights it confers lie at the heart of the EU. The Commission reports every 3 years on progress towards effective EU citizenship.

The 2023 Citizenship Report takes stock of policy initiatives since 2020 by outlining the measures undertaken at EU level to strengthen and promote EU citizenship rights, common values and democratic participation.

Find all previous reports

Eurobarometer surveys

The 2023 Eurobarometer on Citizenship and Democracy was carried out between April and May 2023 to assess European’s familiarity with their status of EU citizens and their understanding of some of the key rights conferred by EU citizenship.

Find previous Eurobarometers related to EU citizenship, democracy and elections

Investor citizenship schemes

On 23 January 2019, the Commission adopted its Report on Investor Citizenship and Residence Schemes in the European Union, which provides an overview of all such schemes operating in the EU.

Find more information on the follow-up to the Commission’s report

Knowing your rights and where to get help

  • Your Europe - Information and advice on the electoral rights of EU citizens and their family
  • SOLVIT – Get help when working with your national authorities if you encounter difficulties
  • Contact the EU
  • Find here some of the key legislation that underpins the rights of EU citizens